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Nutrition and Health Benefits of Potatoes
Information from : Healthline.com
Potatoes are a versatile root vegetable and a staple food in many households.
They are an underground tuber that grows on the roots of the Solanum tuberosum plant(1Trusted Source).
Potatoes are relatively cheap, easy to grow and packed with a variety of nutrients.
1. Packed With Nutrients
Potatoes are an excellent source of many vitamins and minerals.
One medium baked potato (6.1 ounces or 173 grams), including the skin, provides (2):
- Calories: 161
- Fat: 0.2 grams
- Protein: 4.3 grams
- Carbs: 36.6 grams
- Fiber: 3.8 grams
- Vitamin C: 28% of the RDI
- Vitamin B6: 27% of the RDI
- Potassium: 26% of the RDI
- Manganese: 19% of the RDI
- Magnesium: 12% of the RDI
- Phosphorus: 12% of the RDI
- Niacin: 12% of the RDI
- Folate: 12% of the RDI
The nutritional content of potatoes can vary depending on the variety and how they are prepared. For example, frying potatoes adds more calories and fat than baking them.
It’s also important to note the skin of the potatoes contains a great amount of the vitamins and minerals. Peeling potatoes can significantly reduce their nutritional content (1Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source).
SUMMARYPotatoes are packed with vitamins and minerals, though the variety and preparation method can affect the nutritional content.
2. Contain Antioxidants
Potatoes are rich in compounds like flavonoids, carotenoids and phenolic acids (4).
These compounds act as antioxidants in the body by neutralizing potentially harmful molecules known as free radicals. When free radicals accumulate, they can increase the risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes and cancer (5Trusted Source).
For example, a test-tube study found that the antioxidants present in potatoes may suppress the growth of liver and colon cancer cells (6Trusted Source).
Studies have also found that colored potatoes like purple potatoes can have three to four times more antioxidants than white potatoes. This makes them potentially more effective at neutralizing free radicals (7Trusted Source, 8).
However, most of this evidence is from test-tube studies. More human-based research is necessary before making any health recommendations.
SUMMARYPotatoes are a good source of antioxidants, which may reduce the risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. However, more human-based research is required before making any recommendations.
3. May Improve Blood Sugar Control
Potatoes contain a special type of starch known as resistant starch.
This starch is not broken down and fully absorbed by the body. Instead, it reaches the large intestine where it becomes a source of nutrients for the beneficial bacteria in your gut (9Trusted Source).
Research has linked resistant starch to many health benefits, including reducing insulin resistance, which, in turn, improves blood sugar control.
In an animal study, mice fed resistant starch showed reduced insulin resistance. This means their bodies were more efficient at removing excess sugar from the blood (10Trusted Source).
A study of people with type 2 diabetes found consuming a meal with resistant starch helped better remove excess blood sugar after a meal (11Trusted Source).
In another study, ten people were fed 30 grams of resistant starch daily over a four-week period. Scientists found that resistant starch reduced insulin resistance by 33% (12Trusted Source).
SUMMARYPotatoes contain resistant starch, which may help reduce insulin resistance. In turn, this can help improve blood sugar control.
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4. May Improve Digestive Health
The resistant starch in potatoes may also improve digestive health.
Studies have shown that butyrate can reduce inflammation in the colon, strengthen the colon’s defenses and reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (17Trusted Source).
Moreover, butyrate may aid patients with inflammatory bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and diverticulitis (18Trusted Source).
That said, most of the evidence surrounding butyrate is from test-tube or animal studies. More human-based research is necessary before making recommendations.
SUMMARY Resistant starch in potatoes is a source of nutrition for beneficial gut bacteria. They convert it to the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, which has been linked to reduced inflammation in the colon, improved colon defenses and a lower risk of colorectal cancer.
5. Naturally Gluten-Free
The gluten-free diet is one of the most popular diets worldwide. It involves eliminating gluten, which is a family of proteins found in grains like spelt, wheat, barley and rye.
Most people do not experience adverse symptoms from consuming gluten.
However, people with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity can experience severe discomfort when consuming foods that contain gluten. Symptoms include sharp stomach pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating and skin rashes, just to name a few (19Trusted Source, 20Trusted Source).
If you follow a gluten-free diet, then you should consider adding potatoes to your diet. They are naturally gluten-free, which means they won’t trigger uncomfortable symptoms.
While potatoes are gluten-free, many common potato recipes are not. Some potato dishes that contain gluten include certain au gratin recipes and potato bread.
If you have celiac disease or a non-celiac gluten sensitivity, be sure to read the full list of ingredients before eating a potato dish.
SUMMARYPotatoes are naturally gluten-free, which makes them an excellent food choice for people with celiac disease or a non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
6. Incredibly Filling
Aside from being nutritious, potatoes are also incredibly filling.
In one study, 11 people were fed 38 common foods and asked to rate foods based on how filling they were. Potatoes received the highest fullness rating of them all.
In fact, potatoes were rated as being seven times more filling than croissants, which were ranked as the least filling food item (21Trusted Source).
Foods that are filling may help you regulate or lose weight, as they curb hunger pains (22Trusted Source).
Some evidence shows that a certain potato protein, known as potato proteinase inhibitor 2 (PI2), can curb appetite. This protein appears to enhance the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone that promotes feelings of fullness (23Trusted Source).
SUMMARYStudies have shown that potatoes are among the most filling foods. They may increase the levels of fullness hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK).
7. Extremely Versatile
Not only are potatoes healthy, but they are also delicious and versatile.
Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including boiled, baked and steamed. However, frying potatoes may dramatically increase their calorie content if you use a lot of oil.
Instead, try slicing potatoes and then roasting them in the oven with a light drizzle of extra virgin olive oil and a sprinkle of rosemary.
Make sure not to remove the skin of the potatoes, as most of the nutrients are located there. This will ensure you receive the maximum amount of nutrients from the potato.
SUMMARYPotatoes are delicious, versatile and easy to add to your diet. Try boiling, baking or steaming them and consuming them with the skin intact.
The Bottom Line
Potatoes are rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, which make them very healthy.
Studies have linked potatoes and their nutrients to a variety of impressive health benefits, including improved blood sugar control, reduced heart disease risk and higher immunity. They may also improve digestive health and combat signs of aging.
Potatoes are also quite filling, which means they may help you lose weight by curbing hunger pains and cravings.
All in all, potatoes are a great addition to your diet in moderation. They are also naturally gluten-free, which means they can be enjoyed by almost everyone.